Fuel pellets are widely used throughout the world as a fuel due to their environmental friendliness, high efficiency and ease of use. Pellets favorably differ from other types of fossil fuels of natural origin primarily in that they are a renewable natural resource. The world has limited reserves of such classic fuels as oil, natural gas or coal, while the raw material for the production of pellets is renewed quite quickly. In addition, unlike classical fuels, pellets burn, practically without emitting harmful substances and without polluting the environment.
Raw Materials for the Pellets Production
As a raw material for the production of pellets, various wastes obtained during the processing of wood can serve - sawdust, chips, tree bark, as well as various agricultural wastes, from straw to chicken manure. In other words, almost any waste of organic origin can be used for the manufacture of fuel pellets. For use as fuel in large power plants and other industrial facilities, pellets from any organic raw material can be used, the only difference between such pellets is their larger size than household pellets. Household pellet consumers prefer wooden pellets made from softwood and hardwood, such pellets have a diameter of 5 to 12 mm.
Fuel Pellets Production
Fuel pellets are produced on automatic lines, which include a raw material grinder, a dryer and a special press. Organic raw materials are loaded into a grinder, in which they practically turn into dust, then they undergo a drying process, after which they enter a press, where pellets are formed from organic raw materials. Further, the pellets can be used in white form, or they can be additionally processed at high temperatures without access to oxygen, resulting in black pellets. Unlike white pellets, black pellets are resistant to moisture and can be stored for a long time without packaging, in addition, they release more heat during combustion than white pellets. Such pellets are also called biochar due to their combustion efficiency approaching coal.
Scope of Fuel Pellets
Pellets can be used as fuel in almost all stoves and boilers that are designed to burn solid fuels. Pellets burn better than ordinary firewood, emit few harmful gases and practically do not leave ash behind. But the best effect from burning pellets can be achieved using stoves and boilers specially designed for pellets. They provide conditions for the most efficient burning of pellets, in addition, such furnaces and boilers provide automatic supply of fuel pellets, so that they do not need to be constantly looked after. Pellets burn, leaving practically no soot and ash, so pellet boilers need to be serviced much less frequently than wood or coal ones.